Tools and References

Click to jump to the desired section.

  • USAID Environmental Procedures Training Manual
  • USAID Environmental Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities in Africa
  • Additional Sector Specific Resources
  • IEE Assistant
  • Mission Environmental Officer Resource Center
  • Compliance Forms
    • Africa IEE/Cat Exclusion Face sheet
    • Annotated IEE Outline
    • Annotated Categorical Exclusion Outline
    • Environmental Review Form for sub-projects
  • A Cooperating Sponsor’s Field Guide to USAID Environmental Compliance Procedures
  • IEE/EA Archives
  • Biodiversity and Forestry Analysis
  • Laws, Regulations, & Polices
    • Reg. 216
    • ADS 201 & 204
    • Executive order 12114
    • Foreign Assistance Acts 117, 118, & 119
The USAID Environmental Procedures Training Manual
The USAID Environmental Procedures Training Manual is a guide to compliance with USAID environmental procedures for USAID staff and Partners. The EPTM currently exists only in English.The tables, matrices and forms suggested in the EPTM are intended to be helpful to preparers and reviewers, but they are not specified by Reg. 216. Each Mission or Mission partner may decide whether they are useful in documenting 22 CFR 216 requirements.Annex B of the EPTM contains Reg 216 & other official USAID guidance. Annex C Contains compliance forms.
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USAID’s Environmental Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities in Africa: Environmentally Sound Design for Planning and Implementing Development Activities
January 2005
The Environmental Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities in Africa is Africa Bureau’s principal sector-specific environmental guidance.Each sector module of the guidelines has a separate annotated bibliography of web-accessible resources. Choose a sector below for the sector module and accompanying bibliography.

Click here to go to the Small-scale Guidelines homepage or choose from the menu below to go directly to the guidelines and resources for a specific sector.


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Additional Sector-specific Resources

  • Roads
  • Agriculture and Irrigation
  • Forestry
  • Pest Management
  • Pesticides(overview, PERSUAPs & ITMs/bednets)
  • Water and Sanitation
  • Trade & the Environment
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Additional Sector-specific Resources–Roads
Low-Volume Roads Engineering Best Management Practices Field Guide
Gordon Keller & James Sherar
USDA Forest Service/USAID (July 2003)

This Guide is intended to provide an overview of the key planning, location, design, construction, and maintenance aspects of roads that can cause adverse environmental impacts and to list key ways to prevent those impacts.Visit the webpage
Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Road Improvements in Tanzania’s National Parks English
This PEA examines a representative set of proposed road improvement actions of interest to TANAPA in all of Tanzania’s National Parks. The results from this PEA include a set of environmental procedures for screening of various categories of proposed road activities, and for conducting environmental reviews of proposed road construction, rehabilitation, realignment, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

TANAPA Procedures for Environmental Reviews of Road Improvements

TANAPA Environmental Management Plan Guidelines for Road Improvements

Summary Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Road Improvements in Tanzania’s National Parks

TANAPA Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Road Improvements in Tanzania Chapters.

Sudan Transitional Environment Program Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) of Road Rehabilitation Activities in Southern Sudan: Final Report
Road rehabilitation has been an important part of the USAID portfolio in Southern Sudan for some time. Although some of these investments were clearly emergency in nature, others were funded with USAID Development Assistance resources and therefore subject to the Agency’s environmental procedures (22CFR216). Under these regulations, road rehabilitation falls into a category of activities always requiring an environmental assessment because of an automatic positive threshold decision.This Programmatic Environment Assessment (PEA) was carried out to meet those requirements.

The PEA mechanism under USAID’s environmental procedures is particularly well suited to the road rehabilitation situation in Southern Sudan. It allows those carrying out the PEA to treat the many and essentially similar subprojects of road rehabilitation as a “generic class of actions” (22 CFR 216.6(d)).  (2.3 MB)

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Sector-specific Resources–Agriculture and Irrigation

Africa Bureau Fertilizer Factsheet

 English (124K) French (124K)

French translation courtesy of USAID/Senegal Wula Nafaa project.

Inorganic Fertilizer Use in Africa: Environmental and Economic Dimensions

This review synthesizes the state of knowledge regarding the positive and potential negative impacts of fertilizer use in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), discusses some of the dilemmas which arise in the intensification of agriculture, and provides insights towards improving sustainable agriculture and natural resource management programming.

Programmatic Environmental Assessment of Small-Scale Irrigation in Ethiopia English

This PEA is a program-level effort to identify key “lessons learned” from real field experience – what works and what does not in term of ensuring sustainable small-scale irrigation investment and development and avoiding negative environmental impacts.

Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Development of Wetlands in Liberia.

These guidelines are part of an effort by the participating organizations to improve their project planning related to wetland development activities. The purpose of these guidelines is to ensure that environmental factors and conditions are considered in the project proposal phase. The material contained herein serves as a resource for agencies planning agricultural programs that may include wetland environments. It covers the potential environmental effects from wetland development activities. Both beneficial and detrimental effects are discussed. The environmental consequences of project activities can now be considered prior to approval and appropriate mitigation activities can be clarified.

Brockman, F., S McCord, E Drammeh & A Paye. Catholic Relief Services, World Vision and Lutheran World Federation/World Service. 1999.