Tools and References

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The USAID Environmental Procedures Training Manual
image of the cover to the Environmental Procedures Training ManualThe USAID Environmental Procedures Training Manual is a guide to compliance with USAID environmental procedures for USAID staff and Partners. The EPTM currently exists only in English.

The tables, matrices and forms suggested in the EPTM are intended to be helpful to preparers and reviewers, but they are not specified by Reg. 216. Each Mission or Mission partner may decide whether they are useful in documenting 22 CFR 216 requirements.

Annex B of the EPTM contains Reg 216 & other official USAID guidance. Annex C Contains compliance forms.
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USAID's Environmental Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities in Africa: Environmentally Sound Design for Planning and Implementing Development Activities
January 2005
image of the cover to the Environmental Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities in Africa The Environmental Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities in Africa is Africa Bureau's principal sector-specific environmental guidance.

Each sector module of the guidelines has a separate annotated bibliography of web-accessible resources. Choose a sector below for the sector module and accompanying bibliography.

Click here to go to the Small-scale Guidelines homepage or choose from the menu below to go directly to the guidelines and resources for a specific sector.

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Additional Sector-specific Resources--Roads
Low-Volume Roads Engineering Best Management Practices Field Guide
Gordon Keller & James Sherar
USDA Forest Service/USAID (July 2003)
This Guide is intended to provide an overview of the key planning, location, design, construction, and maintenance aspects of roads that can cause adverse environmental impacts and to list key ways to prevent those impacts.

Visit the webpage

Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Road Improvements in Tanzania’s National Parks English
This PEA examines a representative set of proposed road improvement actions of interest to TANAPA in all of Tanzania's National Parks. The results from this PEA include a set of environmental procedures for screening of various categories of proposed road activities, and for conducting environmental reviews of proposed road construction, rehabilitation, realignment, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

TANAPA Procedures for Environmental Reviews of Road Improvements (7MB) (5MB)

TANAPA Environmental Management Plan Guidelines for Road Improvements ( 9MB)

Summary Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Road Improvements in Tanzania's National Parks (14MB)

TANAPA Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Road Improvements in Tanzania Chapters. ( 9MB)

Sudan Transitional Environment Program Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) of Road Rehabilitation Activities in Southern Sudan: Final Report

image of cover of Sudan Roads PEARoad rehabilitation has been an important part of the USAID portfolio in Southern Sudan for some time. Although some of these investments were clearly emergency in nature, others were funded with USAID Development Assistance resources and therefore subject to the Agency’s environmental procedures (22CFR216). Under these regulations, road rehabilitation falls into a category of activities always requiring an environmental assessment because of an automatic positive threshold decision.This Programmatic Environment Assessment (PEA) was carried out to meet those requirements.

The PEA mechanism under USAID’s environmental procedures is particularly well suited to the road rehabilitation situation in Southern Sudan. It allows those carrying out the PEA to treat the many and essentially similar subprojects of road rehabilitation as a “generic class of actions” (22 CFR 216.6(d)). (2.3 MB)

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Sector-specific Resources--Agriculture and Irrigation

Fertilizer:
Africa Bureau Fertilizer Factsheet

image of pdf icon English (124K) image of pdf iconFrench (124K)

French translation courtesy of USAID/Senegal Wula Nafaa project.
Fertilizer:
Inorganic Fertilizer Use in Africa: Environmental and Economic Dimensions

image of pdf icon English

This review synthesizes the state of knowledge regarding the positive and potential negative impacts of fertilizer use in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), discusses some of the dilemmas which arise in the intensification of agriculture, and provides insights towards improving sustainable agriculture and natural resource management programming.
Irrigation:
Programmatic Environmental Assessment of Small-Scale Irrigation in Ethiopia English

image of pdf icon English

This PEA is a program-level effort to identify key "lessons learned" from real field experience - what works and what does not in term of ensuring sustainable small-scale irrigation investment and development and avoiding negative environmental impacts.

Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Development of Wetlands in Liberia.

These guidelines are part of an effort by the participating organizations to improve their project planning related to wetland development activities. The purpose of these guidelines is to ensure that environmental factors and conditions are considered in the project proposal phase. The material contained herein serves as a resource for agencies planning agricultural programs that may include wetland environments. It covers the potential environmental effects from wetland development activities. Both beneficial and detrimental effects are discussed. The environmental consequences of project activities can now be considered prior to approval and appropriate mitigation activities can be clarified.

Brockman, F., S McCord, E Drammeh & A Paye. Catholic Relief Services, World Vision and Lutheran World Federation/World Service. 1999.

image of word icon English

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Sector-specific Resources--Forestry
Forestry:
Programmatic Environmental Assessment of Co-Management of Reserved Forests in Guinea

image of pdf icon English (687K)

image of word icon French (2802K)

The report provides a summary description of the general expectations and basic concepts of co-management of natural forests as foreseen with USAID support. The management activities are aimed at arresting deforestation, protecting the forest ecology and watershed, controlling access to locally valued resources, and enhancing supply of products and income-generating opportunities.
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Sector-specific Resources--Pest Management
Pesticides(overview, PERSUAPs & ITMs/bednets)
image of locust
For an overview of USAID's pesticide procedures view this powerpoint presentation. (Developed for the ESDM course)

The Pesticide Evaluation Report & Safer Use Action Plan (PERSUAP) serves as the "pesticide" portion of the IEE required by Reg. 216. Preparing Persuaps for Pestide Programs in Africa is a general guidance document to assist in PERSUAP preparation (English, Word, 103K)

For information about preparing PERSUAPs involving Insecticide-Treated Materials (e.g., Bednets), see Environmental review and documentation for ITM use in USAID activities. (English, Word, 69K)

Pest Management:
Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for Emergency Transboundary Outbreak Pest Management in Africa and Asia (November 2001)
and
Supplemental Environmental Assessments (SEAs) for Locust/Grasshopper and Armyworm control -- by country

Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for Emergency Transboundary Outbreak Pest Management in Africa and Asia (November 2001)

  • This PEA updates and supplements the 1989 PEA for locust and grasshopper (l/g) control in Africa and Asia and also addresses two other emergency transboundary pests-armyworms and rodents.

Supplemental Environmental Assessments (SEAs) for Locust/Grasshopper and Armyworm control -- by country

  • This PEA updates and supplements the 1989 PEA for locust and grasshopper (l/g) control in Africa and Asia and also addresses two other emergency transboundary pests-armyworms and rodents. The SEAs were prepared by country and supplement the above PEA with such information as local laws and regulations. The SEAs date from 1990-1997, and generally need to be updated prior to use.

Pest Management:
Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Insecticide-Treated Materials in USAID Activities in Sub-Saharan Africa

image of word icon English (743K)

This PEA evaluates the risks associated with using insecticide-treated materials (ITMs) and proscribes steps to minimize these risks, including proper pesticide product selection, appropriate labeling, and user educational campaigns. Programs should also actively monitor for adverse health and environmental effects, to assure that risks are adequately understood and to allow appropriate and timely interventions to reduce risks.
Pest Management:
Malria Vector Control Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA)

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image of word icon PEA document (4MB)

image of pdf icon Annex D: Input Parameter Tables (849KB)

This PEA provides USAID project managers with policy, procedural, and technical guidelines for choosing appropriate interventions and insecticides and developing and implementing mitigation, monitoring and evaluation activities, allowing Missions to design malaria vector control programs in more efficient and cost-effective ways. Draft prepared March 2006 by RTI International for The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Global Health.
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Sector-specific Resources--Water and Sanitations
Water and Sanitation:
Water and Food-Aid in Environmentally Sustainable Development: An Environmental Study of Potable Water and Sanitation Activities Within the Title II Program in Ethiopia
This report reviews the environmental implications of potable water and sanitation activities implemented under the Title II Food for Peace program.

image of word iconEnglish (1588K)

Guidelines for Determining the Arsenic Content of Groundwater in USAID-Sponsored Well Programs

Arsenic testing is required for all USAID-funded wells and boreholes. Africa Bureau mandates compliance with this guidelines document for all USAID-funded well and borehole activities in Africa region.

image of word iconEnglish (832K) image of pdf icon English (28K)

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Sector-specific Resources--Trade and the Environment
Trade and Environment: Critical concepts and considerations for project design and implementation
This ENCAP paper focuses on two trade-related trends which are both consequences and enablers of this globalized context for development: deeper liberalization of international trade regimes - including expanded scope and participation - and the spread of international trade-related standards. Both have significant implications for the environment. The principal thesis is that while environmental gains do not automatically follow from globalization and trade liberalization, certain international environmental standards may be leveraged and diverted towards achieving such gains.

image of pdf icon English (307K)
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Compliance Forms

NOTE: These compliance forms are also contained in Annex C & G of the Environmental Procedures training manual (EPTM). See the EPTM for explanation of how these forms are used (The Environmental Review Form for sub-projects is discussed in Annex G. All other documents are discussed in Chapt 3.).
Africa IEE/Cat Exclusion Face sheet and Annotated IEE Outline image of word icon46K
Africa IEE/Cat Exclusion Face sheet and Annotated Outline for Request for Categorical Exclusion image of word icon36K
Annotated IEE Outline image of word icon399K
Annotated Categorical Exclusion Outline image of word icon396K
Environmental Review Form for sub-projects image of word icon201K

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A Cooperating Sponsor's Field Guide to USAID Environmental Compliance Procedures
image of the cover to the CSR Field GuideThis guide was developed by Catholic Relief Services and FAM (Food Aid Management) for USAID Partner organizations engaged in Title II (monetized food aid) activities.

image of pdf icon English Text (165K) image of pdf icon English with Photos ( 3.3MB)
image of pdf icon French Text (165K) image of pdf icon French with Photos (3.4MB)
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Laws, Regulations, & Policies
Regulation 216
22 CFR 216 (Chapt 22 Section 216 of the Code of Federal Regulations, commonly known as "Regulation 216") is the primary authority governing USAID's environmental procedures.

The full text of Reg 216 is also contained in Annex B of the Environmental Procedures Training Manual
ADS 201 & 204 
The ADS (Automated Directive System) is USAID's directives management system. Agency policy directives and required procedures are drafted, cleared and issued through the ADS. Agency employees must adhere to these policy directives and required procedures

ADS 201 (Planning) and 204 (Environmental Procedures) are the primary parts of the ADS that describe environmental requirements and responsibilities in the planning and execution of activities.

Also contained in Annex B of the Environmental Procedures Training Manual
Executive order 12114
"Environmental effects abroad of major Federal actions" (4 Jan 1979).
Foreign Assistance Acts 117, 118, & 119
Part 1 of the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) establishes requirements related to environmental assessment of foreign assistance activities generally (117), and particular requirements for regarding tropical forests (118), and endangered species/bioodiversity (119).

Part I, Section 117
Environment and Natural Resources
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Part I, Section 118
Tropical Forests
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Part I, Section 119
Endangered Species
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This web site was made possible through support provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau for Africa Office of Sustainable Development, under the terms of Contract No. EPP-I-00-03-00013-00, Task Order No.7. The information provided on this web site is not official U.S. Government information and may not represent the views or positions of the U.S. Agency for International Development or the U.S. Government. To read ENCAP's Privacy Policy, click here.