Brick & Tile Production

Chapter 4.1: Brick and Tile Production: Cleaner Production Fact Sheet and Resource Guide
Other Internet and Print Resources

NOTE: Listing of a resource does not constitute USAID endorsement or certificationReferences and ResourcesResources and References


  • Blackman, Allen and Geoffrey J. Bannister (1998). Pollution Control in the Informal Sector: The Ciudad Juárez Brickmakers’ Project. Discussion Paper 98-15, Resources for the Future.


This case study discusses the development of technology for improving polluting emissions among small-scale brickmakers in Mexico.


  • The Clay Brick Industry: Improvement of Resource Efficiency and Environmental Performance (2000)., Hamner and Associates LLC.


Direct links to online guides for cleaner production in clay brick making.


  • Clay Preparation Methods. Wall Technical Briefs. German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (GTZ).;;

A series of technical briefs dealing with the drying of clay for brick- and tile making, the preparation of clay, and the molding and firing of clay bricks and tiles. The brief describes basic drying processes, different drying methods, surface treatment, drying tests, choice of drying methods, economics and flexibility. A table explains drying faults, their causes and remedies.


  • Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Brick, Tile and Lime Industries on Java (1987). World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program. UNDP, World Bank.;=000009265_3960928074130


This report discusses improvements in the brick, tile and lime industry in Indonesia. Particular attention is paid to better ways to prepare clay and keep tiles from breaking in the kiln.


  • “Energy Saving in Brick Industry: Brick-by-Brick Approach to Sustainable Development.” (1999) Terivision No. 18. Tata Energy Research Institute.


A general discussion of improving energy efficiency in the brick industry. This is not a very technical document but includes useful starting strategies for dealing with energy issues.


  • Status and Development Issues of the Brick Industry in Asia (1993). Field Document No. 35, UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).


A comprehensive description of brick production and alternative technologies that improve production. Specific reference to kiln types and different methods of input extraction.


  • Uganda: Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Brick and Tile Industry (1989). World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program. UNDP, World Bank.;=000009265_3960928084948.


This report analyzes technical and economically feasible means for improving energy efficiency in brick and tile production in Uganda. Specific discussion of fuelwood conservation.


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Other Resources


  • Bull’s Trench Brick Kiln. Wall Technical Brief. German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (GTZ).


Description of the Bull’s Trench Brick Kiln technology. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of the technology, with specific reference to lowering fuel use and improving productivity. Includes diagrams and figures.


  • Energy Conservation in the Ceramic Industry (1994). United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).


This report covers the broader ceramics industry, including pottery, but contains a useful detailed discussion of how to improve energy efficiency in kilns.


  • “The Environmental Colours of Microfinance Theory” and “Practice Enabling the Link between Microcredit and Environment” in Promoting Environmentally Based Micro-Enterprises (2000). Global Development Research Centre.


This is a larger document on environmental assessment of microenterprises, but includes a case study of brickmakers in Zimbabwe.


  • Maithel, Sameer, Heini Mueller and Rajinder Singh (2000). Experiences in the Transfer and Diffusion of Efficient Technologies in the Indian Brick Industry. CTI/Industry Joint Seminar on Technology Diffusion in Asia, 14-15 January 2000. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat.


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