Community-Based Natural Resource Management

Chapter 2: Community-Based Natural Resource Management

Other Internet and Print Resources

NOTE: Listing of a resource does not constitute USAID endorsement or certificationReferences and Resources



  • Borrini-Feyerabend, G., ed. (1997). Beyond Fences: Seeking Social Sustainability in Conservation. IUCN, Gland (Switzerland).


Beyond Fences is an extensive resource designed to help professionals involved in conservation initiatives to identify social concerns relevant to their work, assess options for action and implement them. Volume 1 is a companion to a process of planning, evaluating or re-designing a conservation initiative. It uses a “learning by doing” approach, involving meetings and field-based activities. Volume 2 is a reference book containing an extensive set of resource pieces on subjects ranging form ecotourism to conflict resolution. This material is to be consulted as needed.


  • Buzzard, Candace (2001). Community-Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) in Uganda: A Review of the National Enabling Framework and Comparison with Other African Countries. Published by GTZ/UWA, Kampala, Uganda. September.
  • Buzzard, Candace (2001). Policy Environment Governing the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park and Conservation Area: A Review of Relevant International Agreements, SADC Protocols, and National Policies. Prepared by Development Alternatives Inc. for USAID. November.
  • The CBNRM Support Programme in Botswana makes available many reports released by several different agencies. A set of practical tools and models is particularly useful. The following are a subset of these reports, produced by Chemonics International for the Botswana Department of Wildlife and Natural Parks (DWNP). These were funded by USAID and can be obtained by sending a request to
    • Practitioners Guide-Community Based Natural Resources Management (1999). Easy-reference manual for extension staff of DWNP and local NGOs. The guide is divided in three sections: Botswana’s CBNRM Programme overview, a guide to CBNRM activities, a brief overview of different stages of development and options available, a CBNRM tool kit and a bibliography.
    • Joint Venture Guidelines: A Guide to Developing Natural Resource Based Ventures in Community Areas (1999). Used by communities, safari companies and Government of Botswana extension staff to guide the process of facilitating joint venture agreements or partnerships between a community and the private sector. This booklet explains the roles and responsibilities of the different stakeholders involved and the procedures to be followed.
    • Community Management of Hunting Quotas: Discussion Draft (1996). Botswana Department of Wildlife and Natural Parks.
    • Enterprise Development Tool Kit (n.d.). Botswana Department of Wildlife and National Parks. The tool kit gives suggestions on how to establish a CBNRM enterprise. Discusses assistance that might be required (by an accountant, lawyer, bank manager, consultant) as well as how to prepare a business plan, market the product and manage the business. In addition, an overview is provided on legislation regarding business licenses in Botswana.
    • Problem Animal Control Manual (1995). Instructions and technical guidance in problem animal control for DWNP staff.
    • Community Escort Guide Manual (1999). Instructions and technical guidance for community escort guides on how to escort hunting clients. DWNP.
    • Developing a Methodology for a Community Natural Resource Inventory and Monitoring System (1999). A methodology developed for Sankuyo (NG33/34 in Ngamiland) and Ukhwi area (KD1 in Kgalagadi district) that covers both comprehensive records on and monitoring methodologies of veld products and vegetation in the study areas.
    • Procedures for Establishing and Implementing Community-Based Wildlife Monitoring Programs (1999). A methodology for communities to monitor wildlife density and distribution in their areas.
    • DWNP’s Monitoring and Evaluation Experience with the Natural Resources Management Project: Lessons Learnt and Priorities for the Future (1997). Four case studies on work in Zutshwa, D’Kar, Sankuyo and the Chobe Enclave.
    • Nqwaa Khobee Xeya Trust Constitution. Nqwaa Khobee Xeya Trust. Legal constitution of a CBO, the Nqwaa Khobee Xeya Trust, registered on 10 June 1998.
    • Integrating the Socio-economic and Biophysical Data for Monitoring and Evaluating CBNRM: Conceptual Design Report (1999).
  • The FRAME Web site offers a collection of resources about CBNRM at


This Web site supports strategic analysis of environmental issues in Africa, including the environmental investments of USAID and others. Contents range from the African Conservation Centre (ACC) Database of Community -Based Conservation Projects, to the report on Community Based Conservation Experience in Tanzania: An Assessment of Lessons Learned.


  • Information about CBNRM in Malawi can be found at
  • A set of model documents and tools produced by SNV/Netherlands are available by sending a request to
    • KD1 Land Use and Management Plan (1999). This document describes how the inhabitants of KD 1, organised under the Nqwaa Khobee Xeya Trust, intend to manage the natural resources in their Controlled Hunting Area (CHA).
    • NG 4 Management Plan, Cgaecgae Tlhabololo. The NG 4 Management Plan describes how the inhabitants of NG 4, now organised in the Cgaecgae Tlhabololo Community Trust, intend to manage the natural resources in their controlled hunting area (CHA).
    • NG 4 Tender Guidelines, Cgaecgae Tlhabololo Community Trust. These guidelines indicate the community trust’s conditions for joint ventures to interested private sector companies for tender of the communities’ hunting quota or non-consumptive tourism potential.


back to top



  • ADC (1998). Assessment of Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Southern Africa. USAID Regional Center for Southern Africa.
  • Barrow, E., H. Gichohi and M. Infield. Rhetoric or Reality? A Review of Community Conservation Policy and Practice in East Africa, IIED Biodiversity Group.
  • Byers, Bruce (1998). Seminar on Community-Based Natural Resource Management Summary Report. USAID Global Environment Center.
  • Campbell, Bruce et al. (2000). “CAMPFIRE Experiences in Zimbabwe.” Science 287(5450): 42. CBNRM (2000). Proceedings and CBNRM Status Report 1999/2000. First National CBNRM Forum, May 30t-31, Botswana. CBNRM Support Programme. Available from the CBNRM Support Programme, free of charge:
  • CBNRM Support Programme (1999). Report of Workshop Proceedings of “Natural Resources Monitoring and CBNRM in Botswana.” Natural Resource Monitoring and CBNRM in Botswana (Workshop), June 10-11, Gaborone, Botswana. Available from the CBNRM Support Programme, free of charge. (1999, ISBN: 99912-0-309-5, 72pgs) Contact:
  • Child, Brian, Kara Page, George Taylor et al. (2001). Mid-term Review of (LIFE) II Project and Assessment of the Namibia National CBNRM Programme. Published by IRG/EPIQ for US AID/Namibia. August.


This document is a review of the LIFE II program, which supports the national CBNRM program in Namibia. It describes the program’s achievements to date and outlines actions to take to expand the program over the next two years.


  • Fisher, Weston A. (1999). Award Fee Determination Report for Chemonics Contract Extension in Support of the Botswana Component of the Natural Resources Management Project (690-0251.33). Prepared for USAID Regional Center for Southern Africa (USAID/RCSA). July 23.


This assessment involved an evaluation of program activities and field examination of community-managed projects supported by USAID through the Botswana NRMP. Many challenges facing Phase II CBNRM implementation were identified during this exercise.


  • Getz, Wayne M. et al. (1999). “Sustaining Natural and Human Capital: Villagers and Scientists (Community-Based Natural Resource Management in Africa.” Science 283(5409) Pages 1855-1856.
  • Gujadhur, Tara (2000). Organisations and Their Approaches in CBNRM in Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. CBNRM Support Programme. Can be requested through or
  • IUCN (2000). Community Wildlife Management in Southern Africa: A Regional Review. IUNC.


The report gives a brief review of the extent and progress of community wildlife management (CWM) in the seven countries of southern Africa-Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It includes a summary of supporting legislation for CWM projects and the extent of project establishment. Key emerging issues are discussed. These range from land tenure and conservation/biodiversity impacts, to participation and vertical/horizontal integration, along with many others. In addition, strengths and weaknesses in existing knowledge are indicated.


  • Jones, B. (1999). Community-Based Natural Resource Management in Botswana and Namibia: An Inventory and Preliminary Analysis of Progress.;=8&l;=9&g;=Namibia.


A brief history of CBNRM activities in Botswana and Namibia covering socio-economic and environmental aspects, together with the policy and legal framework for CBNRM; national level activities; major implementing organizations; and short project profiles detailing the location, activities, and implementing partners of individual local projects.


  • Jones, Brian T.B. (1998). Namibia’s Approach to Community -Based Natural Resource Management. Scandinavian Seminar College.


This paper examines the development and implementation of a policy to promote the sustainable management of wildlife and wild habitats by rural communities occupying communal land in Namibia, the most arid country south of the Sahara.


  • Key Questions to Be Addressed in West Africa Stock-Taking Exercise: Natural Resources Management in West Africa-Taking Stock (1999). December 6-10, Koudougou, Burkina Faso. USAID.
  • Moyo, Nobel and Francis Epulani (2002). Examples of CBNRM Best Practices in Malawi. Published by Community Partnerships for Sustainable Resource Management in Malawi (COMPASS). April.


This publication covers 19 examples of small-scale CBNRM best practices. These practices mainly include integrated natural resources management (NRM), communal reforestation, permaculture, and other sustainable agricultural practices. There are also cases where community-based organizations (CBOs) gradually evolved to become local NGOs. COMPASS will keep up with the developments at these model sites to monitor changes and record new lessons that can be shared with partners.


  • Rozemeijer, Nico and Corjan van der Jagt (2000). Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) in Botswana: How Community Based is CBNRM in Botswana? CBNRM Support Programme. Contact:


A contribution to a comparative study dealing with institutional issues in community-based natural resources management CBNRM) in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) region (funded by WWF and coordinated by Bruce Campbell and Sheona Shackleton)


  • Trick, Peter and Linda Manning (2002). Charcoal, Chiefs and Chambo: Status of CBNRM Policies and Results of Collaborative Problem-Solving in CBNRM Programme Analysis and Implementation. Published by Community Partnerships for Sustainable Resource Management in Malawi (COMPASS). June.


This report presents an overview of CBNRM policy in Malawi and documents the outcomes of the policy analysis training and CBNRM policy dialogue conducted in April/May 2002. This report presents three legal analyses (on fisheries, wildlife and land reform) conducted by the trainers/facilitators to update understanding of these important sectors and support future CBNRM efforts. It also records the consensus, processes and outcomes of the collaborative group analyses conducted over the course of the workshop.


  • USAID (2000). Community-Based Conservation Experience in Tanzania: An Assessment of Lessons Learned. Published by USAID. August.


This assessment summarizes the status of the CBNRM activities in Tanzania based on a review of a selection of case studies researched during 1999. The report describes the overall policy framework in place in Tanzania as well as individual projects.


  • USAID (2002). Nature, Wealth, and Power: Emerging Best Practice for Revitalizing Rural Africa. August.,%20Wealth,%20and%20Power:%20Emerging%20Best%20


Building on lessons learned from more than 20 years of natural resource-based development in rural Africa, this discussion paper presents principles and action steps that can serve as a guide to investment. It was prepared by the Environment and Natural Resource Team of the Sustainable Development Office in USAID’s Africa Bureau (AFR/SD). The paper is intended as an opening statement in a dialogue on rural Africa. Comments are welcome and can be sent to Jon Anderson, Natural Resource Policy Advisor, Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade Bureau (USAID/EGAT)


  • UNDP Disaster Management Training Programme (1994). Vulnerability and Risk Assessment. Second Edition. Prepared by Cambridge Architectural Research Limited. Cambridge, UK.
  • Warner, Michael (2000). Conflict Management in Community-Based Natural Resource Projects: Experience from Fiji and Papua New Guinea. Working Paper 135. Overseas Development Institute. London, UK.