Fisheries & Aquaculture

Chapter 6: Fisheries and Aquaculture

Other Internet and Print Resources

NOTE: Listing of a resource does not constitute USAID endorsement or certificationReferences and Resources


  • Aguilar-Manjarrez, J. and S.S. Nath (1998). A Strategic Reassessment of Fish Farming Potential in Africa. CIFA Technical Paper No. 32. Rome, FAO. 170p.
  • Baluyut, Elvira (1989). Aquaculture Systems and Practices: A Selected Review. Published by the United Nations Development Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome.
  • CIDA (1990). Summary version of UNEP Environmental Guidelines for Fish Farming.
  • Emerson, Craig 1999. Aquaculture Impacts on the Environment. Hot Topics Series, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts. December.
  • Environment Canada (2001). Environmental Assessment of Marine Finfish Aquaculture Projects: Guidelines for Consideration of Environment Canada Expertise. Environmental Assessment Section, Pollution Prevention Division, Environmental Protection Branch, Environment Canada, Atlantic Region. June.
  • FAO (1999). “Inland Fisheries Are Under Increasing Threat From Environmental Degradation.” FAO Press Release. Rome, Italy, March 24.
  • FAO, 2000. Small Ponds Make a Big Difference: Integrating Fish with Crop and Livestock Farming. Produced by the Farm Management and Production Economics Service and the Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service.
  • Goldburg, Rebecca, M. Elliott and R. Naylor (2001). Marine Aquaculture in the United States. Pew Oceans Commission.
  • Harrison, Elizabeth (1996). “Digging Fish Ponds: Perspectives on Motivation in Luapula Province, Zambia.” Human Organization, 55(3), Fall.
  • Haylor, G. and S. Bland (2001). “Integrating Aquaculture into Rural Development in Coastal and Inland Areas.” In R.P. Subasinghe, P. Bueno, M.J. Phillips, C. Hough, S.E. McGladdery and J.R. Arthur, eds. Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. Technical Proceedings of the Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, Bangkok, Thailand, 20-25 February 2000. pp.73-81. NACA, Bangkok and FAO, Rome.
  • Hishamunda, Nathanael, Maria Thomas et al. (1998). Small-scale Fish Farming in Rwanda: Economic Characteristics. USAID, Pond dynamics/aquaculture collaborative research support program (PD/A CRSP) research report, [no.] 98-124, 1 June, 12 p. Available at:
  • Machena, C. and J. Moehl (2001). “Sub-Saharan African Aquaculture: Regional Summary.” In R.P. Subasinghe, P. Bueno, M.J. Phillips, C. Hough, S.E. McGladdery and J.R. Arthur, eds. Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. Technical Proceedings of the Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, Bangkok, Thailand, 20-25 February 2000. pp. 341-355. NACA, Bangkok and FAO, Rome.
  • Mittelmark, Jeff and D. Landkammer (1990). Design and Construction of Diversion Ponds for Aquaculture. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, University of Minnesota.
  • Tacon, A.G..J. (2001). “Increasing the Contribution of Aquaculture for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation.” In R.P. Subasinghe, P. Bueno, M.J. Phillips, C. Hough, S.E. McGladdery and J.R. Arthur, eds. Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. Technical Proceedings of the Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, Bangkok, Thailand, 20-25 February 2000. pp.63-72. NACA, Bangkok and FAO, Rome.
  • UNEP (2002). Africa Environmental Outlook: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives. Published by AMCEN/UNEP, July.
  • World Bank/NACA/WWF/FAO (2002). Shrimp Farming and the Environment. A World Bank, NACA, WWF and FAO Consortium Program to analyze and share experiences on the better management of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas. Work in Progress for Public Discussion. Washington, D.C.: World Bank


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  • A Roadmap For the Future for Fisheries and Conservation. M.J. Williams, Ed. (1998). ICLARM Conf. Proc. 56, 58 p. ISSN 0115-4435, ISBN 8709-94-0. Available at:!588469!0#focus


These proceedings report on the fisheries session of the Marine and Coastal Workshop convened by IUCN, the World Conservation Union, 17-18 October 1998. The workshop sought to present and review the state of the art in marine and coastal conservation and sustainable development issues, and to discuss and develop directions, priorities and the role of IUCN in addressing these issues. The seven papers in the book discuss views from fisheries, conservation and resource management experts. The consensus expressed is that fisheries conservation is becoming more complex: it was previously the domain of fishers, fisheries managers and scientists, but now multipolar interests are concerned, including fishers and fisheries experts, consumers, local communities, civil society and other economic sectors.


  • Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. FAO. Available at:


This code sets out principles and international standards of behavior for responsible practices, with a view to ensuring the effective conservation, management and development of living aquatic resources, with due respect for ecosystems and biodiversity. The code recognizes the nutritional, economic, social, environmental and cultural importance of fisheries, and the interests of all those concerned with the fisheries sector. The code takes into account the biological characteristics of the resources and affected environment. It also addresses the interests of consumers and other users. All those involved in fisheries are encouraged to apply the code and give effect to it.


  • Co-management in Small-Scale Fisheries. A Synthesis of Southern and West African Experiences. (1998) Paper presented at IASCP conference in Vancouver, Canada, 9-14 June. In: Fisheries Co-management in Africa. Proceedings from a regional workshop on fisheries co-management research held 18-20 March 1997 in Mangochi, Malawi. [16]. Available at:


This presentation summarizes the findings from eight African countries where case studies of co-management arrangements in artisanal fisheries were undertaken during the period 1996-97. In most of the cases, co-management represents a new approach to fisheries management. In some cases, it has only been applied within the last 3-5 years, and in a few it is merely being considered as an option. The comparison of cases at this early stage may help address critical issues in the planning and implementation of fisheries co-management in Africa. These include the provision of incentives for fishers and other stakeholders to cooperate among themselves and with government in managing fisheries. The level of cooperation is determined by key factors affecting the local politico-historical, biophysical, economic and sociocultural environments of fishing communities and associated fisheries. Incentives for cooperation are determined by the character of the decision-making arrangements in place. These include setting collective choice rules and, in particular, the operational rules for a fishery, and thus the legitimacy of the arrangements in the eyes of the fishers. The co-management approach is intended to replace ineffective conventional, centralized management systems. The differing bio-physical environments seen in the cases represent three ecological systems: lake/reservoir, lagoon/estuary and open coast. In most of the cases only a few fish species are target species. These are often subject to heavy fishing pressure or are already over-fished. In most cases the fishers and their families are totally dependent on the fishery for their livelihood since, with few exceptions, they have no alternative sources of income.


  • Alyanak, Leyla. Fisherpeople launch patrol of their own slack waters. FAO, 1996.


Account of community-based management of Lake Malombe.


  • FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries (1997). No. 5: Aquaculture Development. FAO, UN, Rome. 40 pp. Available at:
  • “Farming fish the right way”. R. Kapadia and M. Williams (2000). ICLARM, USAID. ICLARM Focus for research, 3(2), April, 4 p. USAID order no. PN-ACK-990.
  • Fisheries and Aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: Situation and Outlook in 1996 (1996) FAO Fisheries Circular No. 922 FIPP/C922, ISSN 0429-9329. Rome. Available at:


The contribution of the fisheries sector to the economy of the region has been largely beneficial. Over the last decade, significant progress has taken place including strengthened artisanal fisheries development; the consolidation of a small industrial base; growing export receipts leading to a positive trade balance; and, more recently, indications of a promising takeoff for aquaculture. However, in marine capture fisheries, most bottom-dwelling stocks are thought to be fully exploited, and catches by distant-water nations are steadily decreasing. The immediate potential for increases in production and supply for local markets is primarily with lower-value small pelagics species. Inland fisheries figure importantly in food security, providing over 40 percent of domestic catches.

Freshwater production is close to its estimated potential. Since 1990, per-capita fish supply has followed an alarming downward trend. The major challenge for the fisheries sector will be to maintain production to meet current levels of demand. This will require significant efforts to improve the management of capture fisheries, to support the development of aquaculture, and to promote intra-regional trade.


  • Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Planning Needs for Africa and West Asia. J.H. Annala, Ed. (1997). ICLARM Conf. Proc. 50, 80 p. ISSN 0115-4435, ISBN 971-8709-67-3. Available at:


Proceedings of the ICLARM workshop on 23-25 September 1995 in Cairo, Egypt. Discussion of coral reef resource systems; coastal aquatic and inland aquatic resource systems; African Great Lake and reservoir resource systems; social sciences and co-management; and the partnerships between national aquatic research systems and ICLARM in Africa and West Asia.


  • Forgotten Waters: Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems in Africa-Strategies for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development. Caroly A. Shumway USAID (1999), x, 167 p. Available at: Electronic copy cost: $2.00


This report provides a primer on Africa’s threatened aquatic biodiversity, along with lessons learned from successful and failed conservation projects and options for biodiversity conservation. The report provides an overview of the value of aquatic biodiversity, identifies the biologically and socio-economically most important sites, discusses threats, and recommends activities for urgent conservation action. The report addresses both freshwater and marine biodiversity, covering the following aquatic habitats and their associated flora and fauna: lakes, rivers, and streams; wetlands, including floodplains, freshwater swamps (also known as marais), mangroves, and coastal wetlands; and coral reefs. Associated wildlife include all terrestrial and aquatic organisms whose survival depends on wet habitats. Ocean pelagic areas are addressed briefly. Key recommendations include: improve institutional capacity for aquatic resource management; encourage appropriate economic and sectoral policies; involve the community in aquatic resource conservation and management; support needed research; mimic natural disturbance regimes in order to maintain or restore natural hydrological cycles; assist in establishing critical aquatic resources that can provide both conservation and fisheries benefits; and assist in developing fisheries that are compatible with biodiversity goals. Includes bibliography.


  • Research for the Future Development of Aquaculture in Ghana. M. Prein, J.K. Ofori and C. Lightfoot, eds. (1996). ICLARM Conf. Proc. 42, 94 p. ISSN 0115-4435, ISBN 971-8709-43-6. Available at:


Proceedings of a workshop held in Accra, Ghana, 11-13 March 1993, which presented the preliminary results of a project entitled “Research for the Future Development of Aquaculture in Ghana.” The project was funded by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), and was executed by ICLARM in collaboration with the Institute of Aquatic Biology (IAB), Accra, Ghana. The aim of the project was to determine “what makes sense” for aquaculture development in Ghana, focusing on smallholder farmers.


  • Sustainable Aquaculture: Seizing Opportunities to Meet Global Demand (1998). Rural Development Department, The World Bank. Agriculture Technology Notes No. 22, December. Available at:


This document reviews the continuing growth and importance of aquaculture globally. According to FAO statistics, 1995 worldwide production from aquaculture represented about 21.3 million tons (19 percent) of the total annual fish production from all sources. Aquaculture grew at an annual average rate of 10 percent during the last decade. In contrast, during the same period, the catch of wild fish from both inland and marine waters (capture fisheries) averaged an annual growth rate of less than 2 percent. Moreover, the contribution of aquaculture to human nutrition between 1990 and 1995 increased, while that from capture fisheries declined by about 10 percent. This reversal occurred because an increasing percentage of the wild catch are species of lower value that are being used to produce fishmeal for feed and fertilizer.


  • The Third International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. R.S.V. Pullin, J. Lazard, M. Legendre, J.B. Amon Kothias and D. Pauly, Editors (1996). ICLARM Conf. Proc. 41, 575 p. ISSN 0115-4435, ISBN 971-8709-42-8. Available at:


The proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture held in November 1991 in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. The conference reviewed the latest research and discussed recent and future developments in tilapia culture. Attended by fishery scientists from around the world, the conference was the most important meeting held in western Africa and made important contributions to the sustainable development of aquaculture in Africa and other countries. Available in English and French, with translation by Catherine Lhomme-Binudin.


  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. GEO3 Endangered Animals Snapshot.


This online database lists endangered species by geographical location (region and country) and animal type. Species are further divided into critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable categories. Information available about each species includes its native range, when it was listed as an endangered species, and links to resources about the specific animal.