Food Processing

Chapter 4.2: Food Processing: Cleaner Production Fact Sheet and Resource Guide

Other Internet and Print Resources

NOTE: Listing of a resource does not constitute USAID endorsement or certificationReferences and Resources

Resources and References

  • Cleaner Production Assessment in Dairy Processing. United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP-TIE).


A guide to the application of cleaner production in the dairy industry, with a focus on the processing of milk and milk products at dairy processing plants.


  • Cleaner Production Assessment in Meat Processing. United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP-TIE).


This document is a guide to the application of cleaner production to the meat processing industry, with a focus on the slaughtering of cattle and pigs at abattoirs. Includes case studies, sample evaluation, and assessment forms.


  • Crickenberger, Roger G. and Roy E. Carawan (1996). Using Food Processing By-Products for Animal Feed. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.


This paper gives information to help food processors prevent pollution and save money by recovering by-products for use as animal feed. It considers some by-products suitable for animal feeding and factors to consider when selecting by-products for feed, e.g., moisture content, waste stream, volume of material, and effects on feed consumption.


  • Fellows, Peter. Guidelines for Small-Scale Fruit and Vegetable Processors (1997). Agricultural Services Bulletin 127. UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (see appendix).


This document generally concerns the production process, but it does also include a good overview of health and safety issues for fruit and vegetable processors. Specifically discusses methods for avoiding dangers of hot liquids/jams, fruit acids and steam. Some mention of high volumes of solid organic waste and contamination of the product from workers.


  • Fellows, P., B. Axtell, and M. Dillon (1995). Quality Assurance for Small-Scale Rural Food Industries. Agricultural Services Bulletin No. 117. UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).


A good discussion of cleaner production building design. Specific mention of how to keep rodents and insects out of building structures in addition to sanitation and hygiene in production.


  • Food Processing Fact Sheets. Minnesota Technical Assistance Program, University of Minnesota.


Although this site gives examples of cleaner production strategies undertaken by some Minnesota food processors, it is relevant to developing country producers. Links to the following fact sheets:

  • Composting and Landspreading Food Processing By-Products. A good discussion of how to compost commercial food processing wastes quickly through landspreading methods.
  • Dairy Waste Reduction Tips. A discussion of what some Minnesota dairy companies are doing to reduce wastewater and product losses. Includes 10 water conservation strategies.
  • Feeding Food By-Products to Livestock.
    This fact sheet explains the conditions under which non-meat uncooked food by-products can be used as animal feed.



  • “Fruit and Vegetable Processing” in Pollution Prevention Abatement Handbook (1998). World Bank.$FILE/fruitandvg_PPAH.pdf.


General guidelines on reducing pollution, noise and effluent, with specific recommendations on the recirculation of water in production, dry cleanup, and reuse of organic wastes. Also includes technical information on requirements affecting effluent and acceptable levels of waste for specific items.


  • A Guide to Cleaner Production in the Food Industry. The United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) Working Group Centre for Cleaner Production in the Food Industry.
  • Information Resources on Industrial Pollution Prevention (2000). United States Agency for International Development (USAID).


Contains guides, case studies, and articles focused on pollution prevention in food processing and other sectors.


  • International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse (1999). CD Version 1.0. United Nations Environment Program, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP-TIE)


Contains case studies, country profiles, and cleaner production strategies for food processing.