Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Chapter 12: Pest Management I: Integrated Pest Management

Other Internet and Print Resources

NOTE: Listing of a resource does not constitute USAID endorsement or certification References and ResourcesResources and References Click to jump to the desired section.

  • General resources
  • Resource-Poor Farmers and Pest Management
  • Pesticides
  • Pest management policy
  • IPM-related web sites



  • CARE (2003). Guidelines for Promoting Safer and More Effective Pest Management with Smallholder Farmers: A Contribution to USAID-FFP Environmental Compliance. Prepared for CARE’s FRCT by Sarah Gladstone and Allan Hruska. Atlanta, Georgia: CARE.
  • FAO/WHO (2001). FAO/WHO: Amount of Poor-Quality Pesticides Sold in Developing Countries Alarmingly High. Press Release, World Health Organization and UN Food and Agriculture Organisation.
  • FAO (1988). Good Practice for Ground and Aerial Applications of Pesticides. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  • FAO (1995). Guidelines on Good Labelling Practice for Pesticide. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO (1990). Guidelines For Personal Protection When Working With Pesticides In Tropical Climates. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  • FAO, Pesticide Storage and Stock Control Manual. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  • Knausenberger, Walter, et al. (1996). “Appendix C: Safe Pesticide Use Guidelines” and “Appendix D: Steps to Implement Integrated Pest Management.” Environmental Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities in Africa. USAID Office of Sustainable Development and Bureau for Africa.
  • Knausenberger, Walter, et al. (1996). “Section 3.12 Agricultural Pest Management.” Environmental Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities in Africa. USAID Office of Sustainable Development and Bureau for Africa.
  • OECD (1999). Report of the OECD/FAO Workshop on Integrated Pest Management and Pesticide Risk Reduction. OECD Environment Directorate, Paris.
  • NRC Steering Committee on Identification of Toxic and Potentially Toxic Chemicals for Consideration by the National Toxicology Program (1984). Toxicity Testing: Strategies to Determine Needs and Priorities. National Research Council.
  • US EPA Office of Pesticide Programs. The Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure: International “Right-to-Know.”
  • UNEP (1992). Agenda 21. UNEP.


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Resource-Poor Farmers and Pest Management


  • Altieri, Miguel. (1995). Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems. New York: Food Products Press.
  • Arnold, Edward. (1992). The BMA Guide to Pesticides, Chemicals, and Health. London, England: Edward Arnold.
  • Bottrell, D. G. (1979). Integrated Pest Management. Washington, DC.: Council on Environmental Quality. Washington, DC.
  • Bottrell, D. G., Mann, J. B., Matteson, P. C. Shenk, M. D., Steinhauer, A. L., and Teng, P. S. (1991). How to Prepare Environmental Assessments of Pesticide Use in AID Projects. College Park, Maryland: Consortium for International Crop Protection.;=4638668&CFTOKEN;=63114493&rec;_no=67090
  • Chiri, Angel, Pareja, M., Fano, H., and Urdinola, M. (1995). Mid-term Evaluation: Integrated Pest Management for Andean Communities (MIPANDES). CARE – Peru.;=4638668&CFTOKEN;=63114493&rec;_no=95645
  • Crissman, C.C. (CIP); Antle, J.M.; Capalbo, S.M.. (1997). “Tradeoffs in agriculture, the environment, and farmer health.” In: International Potato Center. Program report 1995-96. Lima (Peru). CIP. pp. 58-65
  • Davies, John E., Freed, V. H. and Whittemore, F. W. (1982). An Agromedical Approach to Pesticide Management: Some Health and Environmental Considerations. Miami, Florida: University of Miami School of Medicine. 320 pp.
  • De Bach, Paul. (1974). Biological Control by Natural Enemies. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press.
  • Fisher, Herbert H., Matteson, P. C. and Knausenberger, W. I. (1994). Supplemental Environmental Assessment of Pest Management and Pesticide Use in the Private Voluntary Organization Support Project of USAID/Mozambique. Volume I. USAID/Mozambique report. 103 pp.;=4638668&CFTOKEN;=63114493&rec;_no=89395
  • Gould, F. and, M.B. Cohen. (1999). “Sustainable Use of Genetically Modified Crops in Developing Countries.” Pp. 139-146 In: Agricultural Biotechnology and the Poor. G.J. Persely & M.M. Latin, eds. Proceedings of an International Conference, Washington, D.C., 21-22 October 1999.
  • Hamburger, J. (2001). IPM That Works: The UN FAO IPM Programme and the Global IPM Facility. Global Pesticide Campaigner (Volume 11, Number 1) 4pp.
  • Hoy, MA. (1992). “Criteria for Release of Genetically-Improved Phytoseiids: An Examination of the Risks Associated with Release of Biological Control Agents.” Exp. Appl. Acarol. 14: 393-416.
  • Hoy, MA. (2000). “Deploying Transgenic Arthropods in Pest Management Programs: Risks and Realities.” Pages 335-367. In: Insect Transgenesis: Methods and Applications, edited by Alfred M. Handler and Anthony A. James, CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, FL 33431; = issue,13,13;journal,50,187;linkingpublicationresults,1:100158,1
  • IPM Working Group Secretariat. (1994). Regional Integrated Pest Management Activity Survey for sub-Saharan Africa: Summary of Survey Findings. Chatham, Kent. United Kingdom. 8 pp + appendices. James, C. (1999). Global Status of Commercialized Transgenic Crops: 1999. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications, ISAAA Briefs, No. 17-2000.
  • Joffe, S.; Cooke, S. (1997). Management of the Water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Aquatic Weeds: Issues for the World Bank. Global IPM Facility, CABI Bioscience, Wallingford, U.K.
  • Matteson, Patricia C., Altieri, M. A., and Gagné, W. C.. (1984). “Modification of Small Farmer Practices for Better Pest Management.” Annu. Rev. Entomol. 29:383-402.
  • Matteson, Patricia, Ferraro, P., and Knausenberger, W. I.. (1995). Pesticide Use and Pest Management in Madagascar: Subsector Review and Programmatic Environmental Assessment. Report prepared for USAID/Madagascar. Arlington, Virginia: EPAT/Winrock International Environmental Alliance. 131 pp.
  • McNeely, J. A., H.A. Mooney, L.E. Neville, P. Schei, and J.K. Waage (eds.) (2001). A Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species. IUCN Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK,: IUCN. (in collaboration with the Global Invasive Species Programme). x + 50 pp.
  • McNeil, Jeremy N. (1991). “Behavioral Ecology of Pheromone-Mediated Communication in Moths and Its Importance in the Use of Pheromone Traps.” Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36:407–30.
  • Mellon, M, J. Rissler (eds.) (1998). Now or Never: Serious New Plans to Save Natural Pest Control. Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA, USA.
  • Natural Resources Institute. (1992). A Synopsis of Integrated Pest Management in Developing Countries in the Tropics. Kent, England: Natural Resources Institute.
  • Oerke, E-C., H-W. Dehne, F. Schobeck, A. Weber. (1994). Crop Production and Crop Protection: Estimated Losses in Major Food and Cash Crops. Elsevier Press, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  • Pedigo, Larry P. and Higley, L. (1992). “A new perspective of the economic injury level concept and environmental quality.” Amer. Entomol. 38(1): 12–21.
  • Pedigo, Larry P., Hutchins, S. H., and Higley, L. G. (1986). “Economic Injury Levels in Theory and Practice.” Annu. Rev. Entomol. 31:34-1- 68.
  • Pimentel, D. P., Acquay, H., Biltonen, M., Rice, P., Silva, M., Nelson, J., Lipner, V., Giordano, S., Horowitz, A., and D’Amore, M. (1992). “Environmental and Economic Costs of Pesticide Use.” BioScience. 42(10):750–60.
  • Pimentel, D., ed. (2002 online and print). Encyclopedia of Pest Management. 2002 online and print. New York, N.Y.: Marcel
  • Popper, R., K. Andino, M. Bustamante, B. Hernandez and L. Rodas (1996). “Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Agricultural Pesticides in Rural Guatemala.” Environmental Management 20:241-248.; =issue,8,12;journal,112,221;linkingpublicationresults,1:100370,1
  • R.F. Norris, E. P. Caswell-Chen, and M. Kogan (2003). Concepts in Integrated Pest Management. Prentice Hall, NY. 608pp.,4096,0130870161,00.html?type=IS
  • Overholt, W. and C. Castleton, C. (1989). Pesticide User’s Guide -: A Handbook for African Extension Workers. African Emergency Locust/Grasshopper Project 698-0517. Bureau for Africa’s Office of Technical Resources. Washington, D.C.: USAID.;=4638668&CFTOKEN;=63114493&rec;_no=63234
  • Robinson, RA. (1996). Return to Resistance: Breeding Crops to Reduce Pesticide Dependence. AgAccess, Davis, California.
  • Roush, RT. (1996). “Can We Slow Adaptation by Pests to Insect Transgenic Crops?” In: Biotechnology and Integrated Pest Management, G.J. Persley (ed.), pp 242–263. CABI, Oxon, UK.;=10.1603%2F0046-225X(2004)033%5B1025%3
  • Schmidt, P., J. Stiefel and M. Hürlimann (1997). “Extension of Complex Issues: Success Factors in Integrated Pest Management.” LBL, Lindau, Switzerland. 100 pp.
  • Schroeder, A.C., and J. Vorgetts. (1999). Emergency Response versus Restraint in the Ongoing Locust Plague in Madagascar: Assessing the Policy Maker, Scientist, Village and Farm Levels. Official Washington, D.C.: USAID Document. 20pp.
  • Southwood, T. R. E. (1978). Ecological Methods: With Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations. New York: Chapman and Hall.
  • SP-IPM (Systemwide Program on Integrated Pest management). (2000). Progress Report 1998–2000. Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research, SP-IPM Coordinator, Croydon, UK.
  • Swartzendruber, H.FD., N. Beninati, and A.C. Schroeder. (1998). Madagascar Locust Emergency. Washington, D.C.: Official USAID Document, Washington, DC. 54pp.
  • Swindale, LD. (1997). “The Globalization of Agricultural Research: A Case Study of the Control of the Cassava Mealybug in Africa.” Pp. 189–194, In: The Globalization of Science Agricultural Research: The Place of Agricultural Research. Ed. Bonte-Friedheim, C.; Sheridan, K. ISNAR.
  • Tabashnik, BE. (1994). “Evolution of Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis.”. Annual Review of Entomology. 39:47–79.;jsessionid=nCM3Zqj
  • Tabashnik, BE.; Croft, BA. (1982). “Managing Pesticide Resistance in Crop-Arthropod Complexes: Interactions Between Biological and Operational Factors.” Environmental Entomology 11:1137–1144.
  • Thrupp, L.A. (2002). Fruits of Progress: Growing Sustainable Farming and Food Systems. World Resources Institute. 85pp.
  • Thurston, D. H. (1990). “Plant Disease Management Practices of Traditional Farmers.” Plant Disease. 74(2):96–102.
  • Tobin, Richard J. (1994). Bilateral Donor Agencies and the Environment: Pest and Pesticide Management. Arlington, VA: Institute for International Research, EPAT/Winrock International Environmental Alliance.
  • Trabanino, R., C. Nolasco, A. Zúñiga, A. Hruska. (1997). Baseline Study from Comayagua and Francisco Morazán, Honduras. Bean Cowpea CRSP/Escuela, Agrícola Panamericana, Zamorano, Honduras. 30 pp.
  • USAID (2001). Emergency Transboundary Outbreak Pest Control in Africa and Asia: Revised Programmatic Environmental Assessment. Chapter 3. United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; Riverdale, Maryland.
  • USAID, Bureau for Africa, Office of Analysis, Research, and Technical Support. Office of New Initiatives. (1992). Project Paper: Onchocerciasis Control Program, Phase IV. Washington, DC: USAID.
  • USEPA. (1990). Suspended, Cancelled, and Restricted Pesticides. Washington, DC: USEPA.
  • Walker, K.. (2001). Pest Management at USAID: Present Activities and Future Directions. USAID Office of Agriculture and Food Security background paper. 17pp.
  • Wittenbert, R., Cock, M.J.W., (eds.) (2001). Invasive Alien Species: A Toolkit of Best Prevention and Management Practices. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK xii – 228.;=1542
  • WRI. (1996). New Partnerships for Safe and Sustainable Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute.