Chapter 4.3: Leather Processing: Cleaner Production Fact Sheet and Resource Guide
NOTE: Listing of a resource does not constitute USAID endorsement or certificationReferences and ResourcesResources and References
- Biller, Dan and Juan David Quintero (1995). Policy Options to Address Informal Sector Contamination in Urban Latin America: The Case of Leather Tanneries in Bogotá, Colombia. LATEN Dissemination Note # 14.Washington, DC: World Bank. http://blds.ids.ac.uk/cf/opaccf/detailed.cfm?RN=169057
This report is a case study of informal leather tanneries in the San Benito neighborhood of Bogotá, Colombia. It includes proposals and policy options for addressing the industry’s pollution problems.
- Covington, Anthony D. (1999). Innovations in Processing. International Union of Leather Technologists and Chemists Societies (IULTCS) Congress held in Chennai, India, January 1999. http://leather.webindia.com/innovation.html.
This paper includes a useful overview of hide processing and presents new or alternative production methods that increase efficiency and/or reduce chemical use.
- Hair-Save Unhairing Methods in Leather Processing (2000). Regional Programme for Pollution Control in the Tanning Industry in South-East Asia, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/import/userfiles/puffk/l_hairsave_unhairing.pdf.
This report discusses methods of unhairing that result in lower levels of contaminated wastewater, compared to traditional chemical unhairing procedures.
- Re-Use of Chromium in Leather Tanning. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) Cleaner Production Case Studies. http://www.p2pays.org/ref/10/09545.htm.
- EP3-Pollution Prevention Audit for a Sheep Hide Tannery. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) Cleaner Production Case Studies. http://www.p2pays.org/ref/10/09234.htm.
EP3-Cleaner Production Audit for a Cattle Hide Tannery. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) Cleaner Production Case Studies. http://www.p2pays.org/ref/10/09238.htm.
Three short case studies of cleaner production in a medium-scale sheep and cattle hide tanneries. These provide a useful overview of cleaner production opportunities. Included are cost estimates of cleaner production methods. The studies also focus on re-use of chemical effluents.
- Sahasranaman, A. (1999) Occupational Safety and Health in the Tanning Industry: Emerging Challenges. International Union of Leather Technologists and Chemists Societies (IULTCS) Congress held in Chennai, India, January 1999. http://leather.webindia.com/safety.html.
This short reports lists worker safety issues associated with tanneries and provides policy strategies for addressing these issues.
- Sources, Detection and Avoidance of Hexavalent Chromium in Leather and Leather Products (2000). Regional Programme for Pollution Control in the Tanning Industry in South-East Asia, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/import/userfiles/puffk/hexavalent.pdf.
This document evaluates a variety of tanning production methods to see which produce dangerous levels of chromium IV, a by-product of chromium III usage. Technical in some sections, but the general discussion on which methods produce the most danger is quite accessible.
- “Tanning and Leather Finishing” (1998). In Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. http://ifcln1.ifc.org/ifcext/enviro.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/gui_tanning_WB/$FILE/tanning_PPAH.pdf
This chapter from the World Bank’s pollution prevention handbook provides minimum pollution standards for tanneries and leather finishers.
- Money, Catherine A. Curing of Hides and Skins: Alternative Methods. Australia: CSIRO Leather Research Centre. http://www.csiro.au/resources/OtherCuringMethods.html.
These two papers present alternative methods of hide preparation and unhairing. There is a short discussion of current methods and alternative methods that can improve quality.
- Pojer, Peter M. and Chi P. Huynh. A Salt-Free Pickling Regime for Hides and Skins. Australia: CSIRO Leather Research Centre. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=10013373
Provides information on eliminating the salt pickle method of preparing hides for tanning.
- Tanneries and the Environment: A Technical Guide to Reducing the Environmental Impact of Tannery Operations (1991). Technical Report Series No. 4. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). http://www.ecoethics.net/bib/tl-021-a.htm.
Extensive discussion of environmental issues associated with tanneries, with possible solutions. Ordered from this Web site for US $25.
- Trainers Workbook on Cleaner Production in Leather Tanning (1996). United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). http://www.uneptie.org/pc/cp/library/catalogue/cp_training.htm. Available from UNEP for around US $120.