Primary & Secondary Day Schools

Other Internet and Print Resources

NOTE: Listing of a resource does not constitute USAID endorsement or certificationReferences and Resources

Resources and References

  • Other Small Scale Guidelines Chapters
    A number of the issues summarized in this guidance are treated in more detail in other chapters of The
    Environmental Guidelines for Small-Scale Activities in Africa (2nd Edition). Refer to these chapters for more
    detailed information on specific issues:

    • Chapter 3 Construction
    • Chapter 13 Safer Pesticide Use
    • Chapter 15 Solid Waste
    • Chapter 16 Water Supply and Sanitation

      All chapters include extensive annotated bibliographies and are available for download at

Latrine Siting & Technology Selection

  • S. Sugden. The Microbiological Contamination of Water Supplies. (WELL Factsheet). April 2006.

    Provides a risk assessment method for assessing risk of biological contamination of groundwater from pit latrines.

  • Greaves, Frank. Selecting Appropriate Latrines. TILZ (Tearfund International Learning Zone) Footsteps Series no. 73. 80/Footsteps+73/Selecting+appropriate+latrines.htm

    A short brief on latrine technology selection, including a decision flow chart and criteria ranking approach.

  • Boot, Niall. Types of toilet and their suitability. (Practical Action Technical Brief). August 2008.

Rainwater Harvesting

  • Global Rainwater Harvesting Collective –
    The Global Rainwater Harvesting Collective (GRHC) aims to empower schools in developing countries to improve their access to water by raising and channelling donor funding to local partners to assist grass root organizations and schools in building their own rooftop water systems. Website offers news, articles, photos, and for purchase films about rainwater collection systems.
  • Smet, Jo. WELL Fact Sheet: Domestic Rainwater Harvesting, 2003

    This fact sheet gives an overview of rainwater harvesting systems, component technology, planning and management and the potential effects and impacts. While the factsheet specifically addresses rainwater collection for domestic use, the information can be easily adapted to school contexts.

School Construction and Maintenance

  • Architecture & Behaviour Colloquium, Architectural Quality in School Buildings: School Building Design and its Relevance to Students’ Learning Performance – with a Specific Focus on the Planning and Design of Schools in Developing Countries, 12th Architecture & Behaviour Colloquium, March 30-April 1, 2006, Monte Verità, Ascona, Switzerland –

    The 12th Architecture & Behaviour Colloquium brought together researchers and representatives of
    instances implicated in decision making about and building of new schools to discuss the interrelationship between school buildings and the level of students’ scholarly performances in developing country settings. Proceedings of the Colloquium will be published in the Architecture & Behaviour series.

  • Bonner, Roger R.M. & Das P.K., Vidyalayam, Cost Effective Technologies for Primary School Construction, Overseas Development Administration, New Delhi, 1996 (Department for International Development, British Development Cooperation Office, 50M Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi – 110 021, India)

    A very useful and practical guide on school building with some emphasis on innovative technology and practice to reduce costs, especially of roofs. This includes use of arches, corbelling and precast elements. Although some of the technologies presented have been little used outside India, others have more widespread application.

  • Building Advisory Service and Information Network (basin) case studies, produced by Swiss Resource Centre
    and Consultancies for Development (SKAT):

    1. Education Development Project, School Infrastructure, Laos (1999) –
    2. Rural School Construction in Nicaragua (2000) – 00.pdf

      These briefs provide short case studies of design and construction of school infrastructure for education
      projects in Laos and Nicaragua. They address technical design and construction issues, as well as related
      institutional, community and project management issues.

  • Designshare, The International Forum for Innovative Schools –

    The focus of this website is largely on schools in Western countries, North America in particular. It includes details on articles and a newsletter. The design awards are the most important component, where featured school buildings are described and plans, drawings and photographs presented.

  • Dierkx, René, Toward Community-Based Architectural Programming and Development of Inclusive Learning Environments in Nairobi’s Slums, Children, Youth and Environments Vol. 13, No.1 (Spring 2003) – h_Dierkx.htm

    An interesting article describing a project to redesign schools in Nairobi slums which involved incorporation of children’s ideas in the design.

  • ITGD (now renamed Practical Action) Technical Brief, School Buildings in Developing Countries, 2005 –

    Discussion of design, construction, and maintenance requirements for schools in developing countries.

  • School / Shelter Hazard Vulnerability Reduction Resource Page, Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project implemented by the Organization of American States Unit of Sustainable Development and Environment for the USAID Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and the Caribbean Regional Program, 2001 –

    Summarizes a long-term project to develop national plans to reduce vulnerability of school buildings to natural hazards in Latin America and the Caribbean. The project included a survey of existing school buildings to create vulnerability profiles and the development of school maintenance plans. In the Caribbean pilot project, a master manual of standards for the retrofitting or construction of schools/shelters and for estimating the costs was developed, as were individual reports describing results of property surveys in Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, and St. Kitts.

  • Sekkei Keikaku and World Education-Benin, “Manuel de maintenance et d’entretien des infrastructures scolaires (Manual for School Maintenance and Upkeep)”, created for the “Projet de Construction d’Ecoles Primaires en République du Benin”, 2004.

    This manual, written in French, describes construction and maintenance techniques for primary schools in Benin.

  • Whitby, Garry, Primary Community School Construction, Appropriate Technology, Vol. 25, No. 1, June 1998, pp. 30 – 32.

    A short case study on a rural school building programme in Malawi focusing on planning, building technologies, site selection, design and layout, community participation, tendering, gender strategy and training, and capacity building.

School Sanitation and Hygiene Education

  • IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, School Sanitation and Hygiene Education (SSHE) Theme –

    School Sanitation and Hygiene Education (SSHE) focuses on the responsibility to provide children with an effective and healthy learning environment. It includes lists of publications, case studies, news, and links for sanitation and hygiene education in schools.

  • Snel, Mariėlle, WELL Fact Sheet: School Sanitation and Hygiene Education, 2003 –

    This fact sheet gives an overview on issues which arise in school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE).

  • UNICEF, In-depth case study: school sanitation and hygiene promotion in Malawi.
  • UNICEF, A Manual on School Sanitation and Hygiene, 1998 –

    PART I is on School Sanitation and Hygiene Education at District and National Level. PART II School Sanitation and Hygiene Education at the School and Community Level includes a chapter on construction and maintenance of school facilities with useful discussion of early community involvement in design and the development of maintenance plans prior to construction.