Solid Waste

Chapter 15: Solid waste: generation, handling, treatment and disposal

Other Internet and Print Resources

NOTE: Listing of a resource does not constitute USAID endorsement or certificationGeneral Resources


  • General Auschutz, Justine 1996. Community-Based Solid Waste Management and Waste Supply Projects: Problems and Solutions Compared. Literature Survey. Urban Waste Expertise Programme, Community Participation in Waste Management, UWEP Working Document 2. May.
  • Bartone, Carle R. (1997). Strategies for Improving Urban Waste Management: Lessons from a Decade of World Bank Lending. HazWaste World/Superfund XVII Conference, Washington, D.C.
  • Bernstein, J. (2004). Toolkit for Social Assessment and Public Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management. Urban Environment Thematic Group, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
  • Beede, David N., and D. E. Bloom (1995). The Economics of Municipal Solid Waste. The World Bank Research Observer 10(2): 113-50. Available for purchase from
  • CPIS. Enterprises for the recycling and composting of municipal solid waste, conceptual work, vol. 1. Jakarta, Indonesia: Centre for Policy and Implementation Studies (CPIS) and Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID); 1993.
  • Coad, A. (1998). Solid Waste Management Directory of English-Language Publications and Organisations for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. SKAT. Switzerland. Available for purchase from
  • Cointreau-Levine, S., and A. Coad (2000). Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management: Guidance Pack (5 volumes). SKAT, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
  • Cointreau-Levine, Sandra (1994). Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries: Volume 1. The Formal Sector. UNDP/UNCHS/World Bank Urban Management Programme.;=000009265_3970128111924


This paper discusses the reduction of government activity through the participation of the private sector in service delivery. The paper poses the questions of whether and how to involve the formal private sector in the provision of municipal solid waste services. The paper also presents decision-making criteria and recommends steps for a phased involvement of the private sector, where justified.


  • Decision Maker’s Guide to Solid Waste Management Vol. II (sic. Second Edition) (1995). U.S,. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.


Developed particularly for solid waste management practitioners in the U.S., such as local government officials, facility owners and operators, consultants, and regulatory agency specialists, the guide contains technical and economic information to help practitioners meet the daily challenges of planning, managing, and operating municipal solid waste (MSW) programs and facilities. The guide’s primary goals are to encourage reduction of waste at the source and to foster implementation of integrated solid waste management systems that are cost-effective and protect human health and the environment. It covers key technical, legal, economic, political, and social issues that must be addressed to develop effective waste management programs. Detailed guidance is provided on collection and transfer, source reduction, recycling, composting, combustion, and land disposal of solid waste.


  • Environmental Resources Management (ERM) (2000). Strategic Planning Guide for Municipal Solid Waste Management. CD-ROM prepared for the World Bank, SCD and DFID, Waste-Aware, London.; To request a CD-ROM copy send an e-mail to Urban Help:


The Guide’s purpose is to provide comprehensive information, supporting methodologies and tools to assist development of Strategic MSWM Plans at the local and regional level. It contains a new set of tools for strategic solid waste planning field tested in Peru, the Philippines and Vietnam.


  • Gopalan, P. and C. Bartone (1997). Assessment of Investments in Solid Waste Management: Strategies for Urban Environmental Improvement. Transport, Waster and Urban Development Department Discussion Paper, World Bank, Washington, D.C.
  • Haan, H.C., A. Coad and I. Lardinois (1998). Municipal Solid Waste Management: Involving Micro- and Small Enterprises – Guidelines for Municipal Managers. International Training Centre of the ILO, SKAT, WASTE, Turin, Italy. Available for purchase from
  • IETC/UNEP (1996). International Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies for Municipal solid Waste Management. International Environmental Technology Centre/United Nations Environmental Program.


Directed toward MSW management (MSWM) decision-makers of developing countries and countries in transition, NGOs and community-based organizations involved in waste management, the source book is designed to serve as a general reference guide to researchers, scientists, science and technology institutions and private industries on global state-of-the-art environmentally sound technologies for MSWM. The publication provides a list of information sources, overviews of practices around the world in environmentally sound management of MSW (waste reduction, collection and transfer, composting, incineration, landfills, special wastes, waste characterization, management and planning, training, public education and financing).


  • Iyer, Anjana (2001). Community Participation in Waste Management: Experiences of a Pilot Project in Bangalore, India. Urban Waste Expertise program, the Netherlands. September.
  • JICA (1999). Country Profile on Environment: Senegal. Japan International Cooperation Agency.
  • Johannessen, Lars Mikkel and G. Boyer (1999a). Observations of Solid Waste Landfills in Developing countries: Africa, Asia, and Latin America. World Bank, Washington, D.C.


A survey of landfills in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The authors report the following three cross-regional findings: (1) the extensive use of daily soil cover on newly deposited or compacted waste; (2) little management of landfill gas, and; (3) problematic and often inadequate leachate management measures. The report review long-term environmental impacts and offers recommendations for improving World Bank projects that have solid waste components.


  • Johannessen, L. M. (1999b). Guidance Note on Recuperation of Landfill Gas from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. Urban and Local Government Working Paper Series No. 4, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
  • Johannessen, L. M. (1999c). Guidance note on Leachate Management for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. Urban and Local Government working Paper Series No. 5, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
  • Johannessen, L. M. (in press). Guidance note on Landfill Siting. Urban and Local Government Working Paper Series, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
  • Johannessen, L. M., M. Dijkman, C. Bartone, D. Hanrahan, G. Boyer and C. Chandra (2000). Health Care Waste Management Guidance Note. HNP Discussion Paper, Human Development Network, World Bank, Washington, D. C.
  • Lardinois, Inge (1996). Solid Waste Micro and Small Enterprises and Cooperatives in Latin America. The Global Development Research Center.


This research paper describes the nature, type, origins, economics and institutional relationships of micro and small enterprises and cooperatives providing solid waste collection services in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Peru, based on research carried out between January and May 1996.


  • Lifset, Reid (conference moderator) (1997/1998). The UNDP Public Private Partnership Program Internet Conference: The Search for Best Practices in Urban Solid Waste Management Services in Developing Countries. Internet Conference. Yale/UNDP Public-Private partnership Program.


Summary of an Internet discussion on solid waste management (SWM) in developing-country cities which brought together planners, organizers, consultants and academics from government, development agencies, private companies, NGOs and universities in 30 countries.


  • Medina, Martin (1997). Informal Recycling and Collection of Solid Wastes in Developing Countries: Issues and Opportunities. United Nations University, Institute of Advanced Studies.
  • MOST Clearing House Best Practices Database. Community Participation in the Management of the Urban Environment, Senegal.
  • Privatization of Municipal Services in East Africa: A Governance Approach to Human Settlements Management. Published by United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), with support from the Ford Foundation, Office for Eastern Africa. Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Rushbrook, P.E., and M.P. Pugh (1999). Solid Waste Landfills in Middle and Lower-income Countries: A Technical Guide to Planning, Design and Operation. World Bank/SDC/WHO/SKAT.


This guide is targeted at senior waste management staff in local authorities. It provides waste management with practical guidance on how to make gradual improvements. The emphasis is on upgrading dis\\posal of wastes at modest cost, while still providing acceptable levels of environmental protection in widely different climatic, cultural and political regimes. Guidance is also provided on siting, developing, and operating full sanitary landfills, along with comprehensive policies and programs to reduce waste generation and increase recycling.


  • Scheinberg, Anne (2001). Micro and Small Enterprises in Integrated Sustainable Waste Management: Tools for Decision-Makers: Experiences from the Urban Waste Expertise Programme (1995-2001). WASTE, Netherlands. ISBN number of the series: 90-76639-02-7
  • Schübeler, Peter, in collaboration with Karl Wehrle and Jürg Christen of SKAT (1996). Conceptual Framework for MSWM in Low-Income Countries. UNDP/UNCHS (Habitat)/World Bank/SDC Collaborative Programme on MSWM.
  • Thurgood, M., ed. (1999). Decision-maker’s Guide to Solid Waste Landfills: Summary. Transport, Water and Urban Development Department, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
    Rendered/ PDF/multi_page.pdf
  • Together Foundation/UNHCS. City Garbage Recyclers: Kenya. Best Practices Database. Together Foundation/UNHCS. Safe Water Supply and Sanitation and Waste Recycling and Reuse: Uganda. Best Practices Database.
  • UNEP-GEO-Team (1999). Global Environmental Outlook-2000. United Nations Environmental Program.